As the Covid-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc around the world, Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA) and Zutari (formerly known as Aurecon) has launched a “safe return to the workplace” guideline to help facilitate a responsible reopening of offices in South Africa.
“What is emerging is a realisation that lockdown cannot be a long-term strategy against Covid-19 and that the ‘new normal’ for workplaces is evolving because of the need for human interaction,” says Georgina Smit, GBCSA’s Head of Technical. “Although a ‘new normal’ is emerging in office working, it will need to respond not only to a changed world of work but will have to manage health-related risks as well,” she adds.
The guideline, developed by GBCSA and Zutari, is a technical guide for existing buildings that identifies best practice recommendations for a healthy and safe return. The guide is available for free and aimed at building owners, facilities managers, office managers, and tenants.
“Commercial buildings are not typically designed to standards aimed at minimising the spread of infectious disease to the extent of hospitals that are built for this purpose. However, there are various measures that can be implemented to reduce the risk of transmission,”
Martin Smith, Technical Director, Zutari
The framework and guideline consist of five categories and 45 initiatives and has been put together to understand the range of options that should be considered when implementing the return to the workplace, with safety as the key priority. It provides an overview that identifies infection control strategies at various levels of decision-making and responsibility.
Smit explains that “the guidelines are set up in a structure similar to the Green Star rating tools with various interventions grouped under a number of applicable categories. A short aim description and background are provided for each initiative. The guide puts forward a recommended best practice for each initiative. It is a user-friendly starting point for stakeholders to understand what needs to be considered for a safe workplace.”
The guide considers initiatives related to management, personal behaviour, indoor air quality, safe water systems, and design for safety. Each category has been collated around the point of control within the building in mind. For example, the Management Category highlights the need for mental health support services that encourage resiliency and ensures that discrimination does not occur.
Smit says that the first step for those interested in applying this to a building they work in is a healthy building assessment audit. “The purpose of this is to provide an understanding of the current status of the building and its related services and address the preparedness of management and staff to handle health-related risks. It serves as a gap analysis of your building’s status in relation to desired outcomes and requirements of this guide.”
Zutari’s Martin Smith emphasises that the role of air quality needs to be considered. “You really want to address building ventilation rates to ensure sufficient ventilation or outdoor air supply rates are provided to minimise a build-up of pathogens or contaminants suspended in the air. Good amounts of fresh air also contribute to occupant wellness, which could have translated into productivity benefits.”
When considering mitigation strategies for your building, it is important to understand how infections such as Covid-19 spread. The risk associated with the following four most common transmission routes should be addressed when using this guide: person to person via macro droplets; airborne transmission; fomite transmission and faecal-oral transmission.
“Mitigating risks associated with each one of these transmission routes has a massive impact on the way a building and its occupants need to be managed to ensure everyone’s safety,” Smith added.
It is the responsibility of organisations encouraging staff to return to work to ensure due processes and protocols are followed for the safety of employees. Companies need to be compliant with the SA Government Coronavirus (Covid-19) Regulations and Guidelines and this guideline provides free additional robust support for the South African commercial and retail sector, through the lens of green building priorities.
GBCSA and Zutari urged stakeholders to “use this opportunity to facilitate the shift to creating healthy spaces for people to work, collaborate and contribute to creating a better place for all of us.”
ENR ranks Zutari as top International Design Firm in Africa
Being ranked number one in the Top 225 International Design Firm Rankings for Africa, published by US magazine Engineering News-Record (ENR), demonstrates the value that a local player brings to the table, as well as being able to compete against the best.
“It is important to note that an African management-owned company has received this accolade, ahead of listed and large international players on the continent,” comments Zutari CEO Dr. Gustav Rohde.
The 2020 ENR rating also vindicates Zutari’s experience and understanding of the challenges faced on the continent. “It showcases our substantial expertise base to drive execution locally. We do not have to look to the US or UK to supplement our capability, as do our competitors,” adds Dr. Rohde.
What is critical for success on the continent is forming partnerships with global companies. “Our ENR ranking shows that we are a serious player in this region, and the perfect partner for those working across this proud continent. Our ranking is a reference of our credibility, size and capability. So this is an important tribute to us for both our clients and our partners,” highlights Dr. Rohde.
Zutari, formerly known as Aurecon, has been participating in the ENR rankings for the past 15 years. The first time it was in the Top Ten was in 2011. This is the ninth year it made the Top Ten and the first time it clinched the number one spot.
“Every year has seen us moving up the ranks. It is an enviable position to be in. Our ranking is testament to our continued commitment to the continent, whilst some others have reduced their activities here.”
Dr. Rohde, CEO, Zutari.
Dr. Rohde stresses that ENR is probably the most credible ranking organisation globally for the consulting engineering industry. “We typically use it when we reference and look at competitors, partners and other players in the market.”
The ranking is based on fee value, which is the value or revenue generated by the company itself. “Obviously, this is the same for Zutari as it was for Aurecon in Africa over the years. This recognition is a proud moment for all of us,” concludes Dr. Rohde.
The power of architecture: Covid and the built environment
By Andrew Brose
A new model of architecture is needed to move us beyond neutrality, sustainability, and human-centrism and into an era of carbon positivity, social equity, and planetary health. Our current global crisis presents us with an unprecedented imperative to begin this transition.
Covid-19 has revealed how deeply our health is intertwined with each other and with the health of the ecosystems our extractive practices have continued to encroach upon.
This global pandemic has reinforced what many in the design industry have been advocating for years: the way we live in our cities needs to change to avoid a tipping point in the health of our planet. Now is the time for us to respond to the needs of our communities and push for critical decisions within the planning and design of the built environment which demands a healthier outcome for humans and our planet.
As we begin the injection of capital for job creation, production, and manufacturing in an attempt to revive the post-virus market multi-disciplinary voices are asking to heed the call for a ‘green economy’ and an equitable economy1. Epidemics and disease “roar through vulnerable communities all the time, this time it just happens to be roaring through the entire world” attracting the focus of all our attention, and unless we make critical changes now, we will see these types of events multiplied2.
MASS Design Group was founded over a decade ago in response to an epidemic disease — extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis — whose airborne transmission was exacerbated by spatial conditions of hospital wards and waiting areas. Over the past decade, MASS has partnered with organisations working on the frontlines of the world’s major health challenges, from responding to acute epidemics of Ebola in Liberia and cholera in Haiti, to addressing the chronic injustices of structural health inequities around the world. When Covid-19 began to escalate, we saw its impact on our partners and the communities they regularly serve
In the healthcare industry, this is especially pronounced as the space of the hospital itself will continue to facilitate nosocomial (hospital-borne) infection, unless infection control protocols are established and adhered to. As validated protocols designed to prevent Covid-19 transmission do not yet exist, hospitals are having to implement spatial redesigns on the fly, doing their best to learn from protocols based on other diseases. Until we can better understand the virus’ pathways, we won’t be able to confidently redesign our existing spaces to adhere to new and higher standards of infection control guidelines.
In the meantime, hospitals will continue to repurpose and convert their spaces ad-hoc to meet surge demand – adapting idealised infection control protocols to non-ideal spaces and situations. This means healthcare workers and administrators must quickly adapt inflexible spaces, recognising that the resulting adaptations may put healthcare workers and our communities at risk unless we can quickly create site-specific guidelines that are adherable and implementable based on the best available knowledge. While we need research to understand who is at increased risk for complications of Covid-19 and to develop effective vaccines and best therapies, we also need research that identifies how spatial design and awareness can mitigate risk.
This response effort takes root in our work addressing inadequacies in the built environment to aid those working to detect and treat infectious diseases. Just as institutional, sterile spaces may evoke fear, dignified, human-centered spaces can instill trust and hope.
With professionals responding to Covid in various ways through their own practice, what we need is a commitment to humanity in this time of uncertainty. We have the resources to advocate for basic changes and adaptations to our built environment. Buildings often play an outsized role in the spread of infection — and redesign efforts can play a key role in stemming the tide of a pandemic. Whether it’s providing ample, clean airflow to decrease the presence of contagion, building effective systems to separate waste from water, or designing spaces conducive to infection control, architecture can and should do its part to fight pandemics.
Radically simple actions can include making design accommodations for operable windows and doors for increased airflow, easy to clean surfaces, frictionless entries, and decentralisation of HVAC systems. Reciprocally, these strategies have environmental implications and the connection between designing in response to human health is not far afield from many of the green building guidelines currently in practice.
We have seen architects playing an essential role in the here in South Africa and across the world, not only in responding to the immediate needs of temporary tents and retrofits, but in directing resources towards the production of personal protective equipment, rethinking our public spaces, and considering long-term solutions for infection control beyond this pandemic.
Urgency has a tendency to privilege temporary solutions, but one thing we’ve learned about Covid is that the recovery process is long, and thus, people will be staying in these spaces not for days but for weeks and even upwards of a month, with no access to nature and minimal access to the outside world, which can have debilitating effects of their own.
Thus, we need to design with these emotional and psychological factors in consideration. Besides, leading experts are saying that Covid-19 may be a seasonal occurrence and permanent infrastructures adapted to deal with the epidemiological outcomes of this health crisis may be the new normal for the foreseeable future.
A new world
We are all going to have to navigate the world in a new way when we leave our homes. Many of our fundamental understandings about public space will change as a result of Covid-19, in ways we can only begin to imagine. Some are thrilling: what if we kept the cars off the road? What would it mean to rethink our means of food production and distribution? Can we take on climate change with the same all-in vigour that we are demonstrating now across the world? Others will be less optimistic. There will be fear – fears for our future, fear of each other, fear for our livelihoods and economy, fear of gathering, fear of the ideas of community that have sustained us for so long. Architects and designers can play a large role in rebuilding systems of trust through the design of safe and healthy environments.
The construction industry accounts for more than half of annual global GHG emissions and have brought us indirectly into a short-term health crisis and directly into the long-term climate crisis. Can we leverage a slowing down of globalisation to begin establishing more transparent, interconnected, and regional systems of knowledge, labour, and material supply? Can we emerge with a model of practice that understands a building, a landscape, or rail line to be interconnected with all of the ecological systems it engages?
Seventy-five percent of new or emerging infectious diseases originate in livestock or wildlife, resulting annually in millions of people’s deaths, and billions of dollars of economic impact3. The root causes of those diseases are human in origin, including global trade, changing land use patterns, extractive agricultural practices, unplanned urbanisation, and unprecedented human migration, all exacerbated by a rapidly changing climate. This is One Health: the concept that human, ecological, and animal health are inextricably intertwined. Covid-19, HIV, and Ebola are examples of the increasing trend of environmental origin pandemics, which will only continue to increase with population and pressure on ecosystems. The science of how One Health systems interlink is clear. We need a new playbook to apply it to the built environment.
At MASS we use the One Health principals as our model to respond to alimentative outcomes. One Health emerged through an interdisciplinary approach to disease prevention uniting medicine, public health, veterinary medicine, agriculture, and ecology4. Mapped onto design practice this holistic approach provides the tools for architects to understand our decisions in their totality, expedite a demand for transparency in our supply chains, and empower a full accounting of short-term and long-term socio-economic, ecologic, and carbon impacts. Environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, climate change, and rapid urban expansion are creating conditions for coronaviruses and other zoonotic diseases to cross over into human populations. These risks, rooted in the landscape, are further exacerbated by socio-ecological factors such as social inequity, occupational exposures, and food insecurity.
Designing for One Health, or holistically responding to all possible systems of health through design, places us on a path towards carbon positivity, social equity, and planetary restoration. The current crisis has unveiled the fragility to which our regional systems have been thinned down to by relying on highly complex globalised exchanges. We must utilise this opportunity to emerge with practices that account for the full extent of material supply chains, value all forms of life, and replenish our ecological systems. Disrupted routines have presented gaps in the systems of our cities and this disruption gives us the chance to make propositions for radical change towards a more sustainable future.
We believe in the power of architecture to either hurt or heal. If spaces can be purposefully designed, they can assist in the prevention, containment, and treatment of infectious disease, including Covid-19. The spatial decisions we make now will also have long term implications in how we respond to and prepare for the next epidemic. Our work is predicated on the important focus on dignity, and designing for people, not just against pathogens.
As the world continues to grapple with the outbreak, the need for a unified approach for a healthier and more just planet has never been so pronounced. The pandemic has highlighted the inadequacy of the design profession to respond on its own merit, requiring the humility and understanding that our build environment can heavily influence the trajectory of our lives whether due to our proximal connection to infectious disease or the results of a degraded planetary environment.
Barocas, Josh, MASS Design Group, “Architecture Can Heal – Adapting Healthcare Spaces in Response to COVID-19”. Webinar, Boston, MA, May 12, 2020.’
Asokan, G. V., and R. K. Kasimanickam. “Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health.” Central Asian Journal of Global Health 2, no. 2 (October 1, 2013). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927746/
Queenan, Kevin et al. “Roadmap to a One Health agenda 2030.” (2017)
Amanda Sturgeon, biophilic expert to present keynote at GBCSA Convention
This year the Head of Regenerative Design at the global consultancy firm, Mott MacDonald and respected author, Amanda Sturgeon will be speaking at this year’s Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA) Virtual Convention. The event is set to take place at the end of October this year.
Sturgeon will be delivering the keynote presentation and a deep-dive workshop on regenerative design. She explained that there needs to be an all-inclusive transformation for any meaningful change to take place.
“We will have to shift our fundamental relationship with nature to make a whole systems change. Only then can we restore a positive and thriving relationship with the world. Only then can we solve the climate crisis,” Sturgeon says.
She worked for 15 years as an architect before she became the CEO of the International Living Future Institute (IFLI). As an architect, she worked on projects such as Islandwood on Washington’s Bainbridge Island.
Sturgeon has always been a strong advocate for the green building movement. In 2013, she was elected as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects for her volunteer service in the green building movement.
While she was CEO, Sturgeon has spent the last decade developing regenerative frameworks. She created a global movement around Biophilic Design. In 2018, she delivered a talk for TedMed on how biophilic buildings can make people more productive while making them healthier and happier.
In December 2017. Sturgeon published a book called Creating Biophilic Buildings. In 2015 she was honoured as one of the top ten most powerful women in sustainability and she received the Women in Sustainability Leadership Award.