Creecy firm in rejecting Karpowership plan

Environment minister Barbara Creecy has stood firm on her legal mandate to defend the country’s environment, declaring that support from Gwede Mantashe’s energy department for Turkish powerships cannot override the Constitution and environmental laws.

By Tony Carnie Follow

Forestry, Fisheries and Environment Minister Barbara Creecy has noted that, “The alleviation of the current energy crisis may be vital, but this does not mean that it must be achieved by this specific (Karpowership) project. Nor does it follow that there is now a licence to ignore all relevant environmental considerations.”

And yet, Creecy has given the controversial Turkish Karpowership group a third bite at a multibillion-rand, 20-year energy contract cherry — by granting the company another chance to “rectify” the manifest failures in its flawed and incomplete environmental impact assessment (EIA) process. 

Significantly, the EIA was preceded by a cynical and possibly fraudulent attempt to circumvent the EIA process entirely by exploiting “emergency approval” loopholes under Section 30A of the National Environment Management Act at the height of the Covid-19 crisis.

In emphatic written decisions dated 1 August, Creecy dismissed all three appeals by the Istanbul-based Karpowership group against the rejection by her department of their EIA proposals.

The company hopes to generate 1 220MW of electricity by docking several gas-burning power and allied supply ships in the Richards Bay, Ngqura and Saldanha harbours.

‘Special weighting’

Creecy said Karpowership’s consultants, economic allies and legal representatives had tried to brush aside significant environmental concerns and persuade her that energy and socioeconomic considerations should be given a special weighting in the EIA approval process — and that there should also have been a special intergovernmental consultation process for this Strategic Integrated Project.

Creecy was not impressed by these arguments, declaring that in terms of Section 24 of the Constitution, she had the imperative to protect the environment for current and future generations and to ensure that all development was ecologically sustainable.

In response to criticism from several business lobbies, including the National African Federated Chamber of Commerce, Black Entrepreneurs Stand Together and the Eastern Cape Maritime Business Chamber, Creecy acknowledged that the government’s 2019 energy path did not exclude gas-fired power plants.

However, she said: “Karpowership is not the only entity that can deliver this result, and refusing their application for authorisation simply means that from the perspective of environmental governance, the proposed activities cannot be supported.

“Therefore, I do not agree with the argument that because this specific application for environmental authorisation was refused, therefore a general national policy was contradicted.”

Her rulings, running to roughly 100 pages each for the three harbour proposals, make it clear that both she and her department remain concerned about several aspects of the Karpowership plan.

These included the climate change impacts of emitting millions of tonnes of greenhouse gases and significant risks to fisheries, birds and marine organisms from underwater noise or hot water expulsions from the powerships’ turbochargers, exhaust stacks and cooling water circuits.

Why the lifeline?

While many will applaud Creecy and her officials for seemingly holding the line against actual or perceived political pressure by those with vested interests in the gas project, questions now arise about why has she thrown another last-minute lifeline to Karpowership to correct its failures and attempted shortcuts.

According to the appeal ruling, Creecy has the legal discretion to fashion a “just and equitable remedy” to address any shortfalls or irregularities in the EIA process.

“In my consideration of all the relevant information before me, I find that there are various gaps in information and procedural defects in relation to the public participation process that led to the rejections of the EA application. The gaps in information and procedural defects are material and fatal and cannot be cured during the current appeal process.”   

In exercising her discretion on the matter, she said various interests that might be affected by her proposed remedy should be weighed.

“This should at least be guided by the objective to address the wrong occasioned by the infringement; deter future violations; make an order which can be complied with; and which is fair to all those who might be affected by the relief.”

Therefore, she had decided to remit the matter to her department so that “various gaps and defects” in the public procedure process could be addressed during the “reconsideration and re-adjudication” of the environmental approval process.

Time limits

The proviso is that this reconsideration process should comply with the time frames stipulated in the 2014 EIA Regulations.

Neither her department nor Karpowership has responded to our questions on the duration of these new time limits. But according to senior Durban environmental attorney Jeremy Ridl, the Turks may now get another 106 days, or 156 days, to submit a revised EIA report, depending on the processes followed. Thereafter, Creecy’s department would have another 107 days to make a final decision.

Ridl said that while these time frames provided for a minimum of 30 days for public participation, the public would be at a considerable disadvantage while preparing or evaluating expert opinions.

The fact that Creecy had granted Karpowership another bite at the EIA cherry suggested to him that she was inclined to grant final authorisation at a later stage if the company could address the identified defects.

It was also possible, however, that Creecy was simply being cautious in following due legal process and giving Karpowership one final opportunity to repair defects.

Yet, because the ANC government and energy minister Mantashe appeared to have “bent over backwards” to support the Karpowership proposal, Ridl questioned whether the voice of a lone environment minister could sway opinions at Cabinet level.

Nevertheless, Creecy’s appeal ruling gave short shrift to Karpowership’s assertions that she could overlook “micro” environmental impacts in degraded “brownfields harbours”.

“The gaps, limitations and inconsistencies provided in the socioeconomic assessment report had the effect of excluding critical environmental concerns from the EIA, that Karpowership attempts to rationalise based on its own notion of development and improvement of the South African economy.”

Breeding and nursery areas

Far from being heavily degraded industrial harbours, Creecy noted that the 57km2 Saldanha Bay/Langebaan Lagoon was the largest body of wave-sheltered water on the South African coast and provided a critical nursery area for both seabirds and fish such as harders, silverside, stumpnose, goby and blacktail.

Algoa Bay and its islands also provided food, shelter and breeding areas for several sea birds — including the largest breeding ground of the endangered African penguin (about 35% of the global and 42% of the South African population) and the world’s largest population of Cape gannets.

Similarly, Richards Bay harbour and its adjoining mud flats and nature reserve provided a critical nursery area for numerous fish species — not just for the benefit of anglers in the harbour, but the KZN region as a whole.

Underwater noise

Whereas Karpowership had proposed that further studies about underwater noise be deferred until after the powerships had been given the go-ahead, Creecy said this would defeat the purpose of an EIA — namely to identify potential negative impacts before they occurred.

This was especially critical for a power technology that had never been used in South Africa, she said, emphasising the need for a more rigorous, detailed and cautious assessment of underwater noise impacts.

According to submissions made to Creecy by several environmental NGOs, the final EIA report did not contain an adequate assessment of underwater noise impacts generated by powerships in the three harbours for up to 24 hours a day for two decades.

Creecy appears to acknowledge these concerns in her ruling, noting that noise impacts had not been assessed adequately. One of the technical studies noted that marine animals could suffer extensive damage to their hearing systems, haemorrhaging, damage to internal organs and disruption to communication and feeding.

These specialist reports indicated that concerns around human-induced noise in the sea were valid. She also concurred with senior officials in her department’s Oceans and Coasts branch, who voiced concern that there was still “considerable uncertainty” around the potential noise impacts from powerships. 

One of the specialist reports also suggested that additional noise “could be disastrous for the ecology” if it exceeded ecological thresholds or could not be mitigated (by silencing equipment and other methods).

Sea heating

Another issue of concern was the additional heat in the sea around powerships due to cooling water emissions that could potentially affect the food chain, from tiny plankton to small fish and much larger marine animals.

She remarked that specialist studies and the final EIA report were “not always entirely convincing” in dismissing concerns around heated seawater discharges, which could result in temperature increases of up to 15°C in the vicinity of the powerships.

In her ruling, Creecy was at pains to emphasise her belief that the fundamental environmental rights in Section 24 of the Constitution were “distinctly anthropocentric in nature”.

“The ultimate aim of these fundamental rights is not the conservation or protection of the environment for the sake of the environment itself, but the aim therof is the responsible utilisation of natural resources for satisfying the needs of humans.

“In this context, I also have the constitutional and legal obligation not to allow a preventable state of affairs in an environment that may potentially or actually harm the health or well-being, in a wide sense, of another person or persons. The ‘need and desirability’ of a proposed project should also be considered in this context.”

Karpowership response

We asked Karpowership whether it was considering taking Creecy’s ruling on judicial review, and if not, what time window was left for the “remittal and reconsideration process” by the Department of Fisheries, Forestry and Environment.

The company did not respond to our questions, but issued this response:

Karpowership operates in 25 countries across the globe. We take great pride in our track record of environmental stewardship, and we have always placed top priority in our ability to comply with international environmental legislation. Our desire to serve as a good corporate citizen to the people of South Africa and comply with South Africa’s environmental laws is a driving force of this project.

“We respect Minister Creecy’s exercise of her powers, but we are very disappointed with the outlook, especially given the time it took to make a decision. While we disagree with the findings on Friday’s report, we agree with the independent arbiter that there are no fatal flaws in the Karpowership SA EIA. 

“We appreciate the DFFE’s remission of our EIA to the competent authority, which allows us the opportunity to address perceived gaps, and we hope that the process will be much timelier than it has been to date. 

“We all have the same mission — to rapidly provide power to the South African people and to implement solutions that ensure environmental protections and ecologically sustainable development. In order meet these goals, we need a collaborative partner in the government who follows timetables laid out in South African law.

“Floating Gas to Power is embraced in Europe, the United States and Asia because the projects take less than one year to build and deliver clean, affordable and reliable power without the destruction of ecosystems on thousands of hectares of land. 

“South Africa needs dispatchable power now and, with the support and collaboration of the government, we are confident that we can address all EIA concerns and deploy projects that will power 800,000 homes and end one full stage of load shedding.

“We remain committed to being part of South Africa’s energy security solution and are ready to deploy our Powerships immediately.” 

Article courtesy of The Daily Maverick

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RUN BLUE campaign for water arrives in South Africa “Water is everyone’s business”

Please join us for a press briefing where international water activist and CEO Mina Guli will share her experiences of the water crisis across the globe and provide insight on what South Africa can do to solve its water problems.

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Energy efficiency: the key to sustainable wastewater infrastructure

With no end in sight for loadshedding, it’s important for municipalities to start engaging in energy efficient mechanisms in their water and wastewater infrastructure. 

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Global water scarcity is code red for humanity, the answer is private finance

Half the world is now facing droughts, floods and filthy water – and the problem urgently requires huge amounts of private finance, warns the CEO of one of the world’s largest independent financial advisory, asset management and fintech organisations.

The warning from deVere Group’s Nigel Green comes as Italy declares a state of emergency amid the worst drought in 70 years. Elsewhere, Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States, which provides water for tens of millions of people and countless acres of farmland in the southwest, is now just one-quarter full. Meanwhile, once again Sydney is flooded as the impact of the climate crisis becomes the new normal for Australia’s most populous state.

Nigel Green says: “There’s no doubt that all around the world the fallout of the growing climate crisis is accelerating.

“The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has warned in a report that more than half the world’s population faces water scarcity for at least one month every year, others will be hit by regular severe floods, previously only seen once-in-a-generation, while others have access to only dirty water.

“This is now being played out in real-time every time you look at the news.”

He continues: “A failure to get a grip on this emergency is going to produce catastrophic, irreversible consequences later.

“The response will require political and social determination on a global scale. 

“But, critically, it will also require tens of trillions of dollars. As governments alone cannot afford this now, especially with slowing economic growth amongst other headwinds, the solutions demand private financing.”

As such, notes the deVere Group CEO, the financial sector needs now needs to become more proactive to “unleash and mobilise” the funds required.

He is calling for never-before-seen levels of cooperation between financial advisories, insurance firms, banks, wealth and asset managers, investment companies, fintech groups, banks, and auditors in the fight against climate change.

“Governments around the world have proven themselves to be slow – at best – at responding to the urgent ‘code red’ situation we’re facing.

“Therefore, the financial industry must step-up. If we don’t, the level of funding will not be available, nor at the pace necessary, to mitigate human-created global warming.”

Nigel Green concludes: “Climate change is the greatest risk multiplier to our planet, to our communities, and to our way of life.

“It will take huge amounts of private financing to halt its impact. 

“The onus now falls on the financial sector to help mobilise and unlock the necessary funds through education and robust, impactful investment solutions.”

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Enterprising South African property developers are increasingly exploring ways of using water more efficiently.

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The launch of the Olifants Management Model programme

The signing of the Heads of Terms for an OMM Framework Agreement on 23 March 2022 by Dr Sean P Phillips, the Director-General of the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), represents a significant milestone for the Olifants Management Model (OMM) Programme and paved the way for its official launch by Minister Mchunu on 9 May.

The signed agreement initiates the start of the next implementation phase of the Programme and confirms key areas of negotiation between institutional and commercial members, such as governance
structures, programme scope, funding of CAPEX, securing of pipeline capacity, resourcing partnerships and more.

The agreement also confirms joint responsibility for the funding of study costs (by both institutional and commercial users), and that the Programme will be implemented by a transformed Lebalelo Water User Association (LWUA). The LWUA will be rebranding in future and is set to become a renamed entity with a new logo and corporate identity; for the time being, the name is proposed as the Olifants Management Model Water User Association (OMM WUA).

The OMM Programme represents a significant opportunity for socio-economic development (SED) given the extent of the capital and operation spend. In line with the five identified priority areas for SED (see diagram below), the OMM team have set up a series of three ideation sessions to help identify potential SED initiatives. The sessions are focused on Potable Water and Sanitation, Education and Enterprise Development with an emphasis on how technology and connectivity can be leveraged.

To date, two workshops (Potable Water and Sanitation as well as Education) have been held in Polokwane with good representation from local, provincial and national government departments. The ideation sessions will culminate in a funding partners workshop with a view to driving sponsorship for initiatives identified through the process.

The five priority areas for socio-economic development
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Operation Vulindlela: catalyst to NERSA’s approval of 16 more distributed generation projects, streamlining water processes and national rail policy

In the water sector, Operation Vulindlela has been providing technical support to the Department of Water and Sanitation to implement a turnaround plan for the granting of water use licences, with a target to process 80% of all applications within 90 days.

by GCIS Vuk’uzenzele

The South African economy, like any other economy, cannot function, let alone grow, without efficient and competitive network industries. These industries – which include electricity, water, transport and telecommunications – are the arteries through which the oxygen of the economy runs.

Structural problems in these areas have long been cited as some of the main constraints on South Africa’s economic growth. Inefficiency and the high cost of network services are an impediment to doing business in the country.

To address and overcome these challenges, we set up Operation Vulindlela in October 2020 as an initiative of the Presidency and National Treasury to accelerate structural reforms in these network industries. While the responsible government departments and entities drive these reforms, Operation Vulindlela monitors and identifies challenges and blockages. Where needed, it facilitates technical support to departments.

The recent quarterly report outlines the progress made by Operation Vulindlela and the departments responsible for these reforms. Across government, our focus is on reforms that are fundamental and transformative; that reshape the way our economy works.

This includes the auction of high-demand spectrum for mobile telecommunications, which was delayed for more than 10 years and finally completed in March. The release of new spectrum will improve connectivity and bring down broadband costs. 

The establishment of the National Ports Authority as a separate subsidiary of Transnet last year had been delayed for more than 15 years. This was the necessary first step towards enabling private sector participation and increasing the efficiency of our port terminals.

We have also reinstated the Blue Drop, Green Drop and No Drop system for the first time since 2014 to ensure better monitoring of water and wastewater treatment quality. We have published an updated Critical Skills List, also for the first time since 2014.

These are just some examples where, by focusing effort and attention on a limited number of priority reforms, this administration has been able to drive progress.

Through Operation Vulindlela, we have also been able to take a more focused and holistic approach to reforms, ensuring better coordination where multiple departments and entities are involved.

The best example of this is in the energy sector, where a number of important, interconnected reforms are underway to change the way that we generate and consume electricity.

Milestones include the raising of the licensing threshold for new generation projects to 100MW, allowing these projects to connect to the grid and sell power to customers. We have revived the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme through the opening of new bid windows.

Changes to the regulations on new generation capacity have allowed municipalities to procure power independently for the first time. And legislative reforms will ultimately give birth to a new competitive electricity market, supported by the publication of the Electricity Regulation Amendment Bill and the work underway to amend the Electricity Pricing Policy.

The process of unbundling Eskom is on track, with the entity meeting its December 2021 deadline for the establishment of a National Transmission Company. By December this year we hope to complete the unbundling of Eskom’s generation and distribution divisions.

The quarterly report highlights a number of other important achievements, as well as areas where intensive work is underway.

In the water sector, Operation Vulindlela has been providing technical support to the Department of Water and Sanitation to implement a turnaround plan for the granting of water use licences, with a target to process 80% of all applications within 90 days.

Work is also underway to establish a National Water Resources Infrastructure Agency that will ensure better management of our national water resources.

In the transport sector, inefficiencies in port and rail have severely affected our ability to export goods. Work is underway to establish partnerships with private sector operators to invest in port infrastructure and improve the management of container terminals at the ports of Durban and Ngqura.

The White Paper on National Rail Policy, which was approved by Cabinet in March, outlines plans to revitalise rail infrastructure and enables third party access to the freight rail network. Transnet Freight Rail is already in the process of making slots available for private rail operators on the network.

A fully operational e-Visa system has been launched in 14 countries, including some of our largest tourist markets. A comprehensive review of the work visa system is also underway to enable us to attract the skills that our economy needs.

These reforms have been made possible due to better collaboration across government behind a shared reform agenda.

We call on business and investors to take advantage of the changes that are underway and turn their pledges and commitments into tangible, job creating investments.

This article was originally published in the GCIS Vuk’uzenzele.

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Energy regulator to oppose court application to review Karpowership licences

The National Energy Regulator of SA has told The Green Connection that it will oppose its court application to review and set aside the decision to grant three electricity generation licences to Karpowership South Africa.

By Tembile Sgqolana

23 May 2022  

The National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa) last week notified The Green Connection that it will oppose the sustainable development NGO’s court application to review and set aside the decision to grant three electricity generation licences to Karpowership South Africa.

This was on the same day that the Minister of Mineral Resources and Energy, Gwede Mantashe, laid out the department’s budget for the 2022/23 financial year.

Minister of Mineral Resources and Energy Gwede Mantashe. (Photo: Gallo Images / Felix Dlangamandla)

In September 2021, Nersa approved the Karpowership licences despite the Department of Forestry, Fisheries and Environment’s refusal to grant environmental authorisation. 

Nersa ignored the public outcry, particularly from small-scale fishing communities around Saldanha Bay in the Western Cape, Ngqurha (Coega) in the Eastern Cape and Richards Bay in KwaZulu-Natal, where these floating power plants were to be anchored.

Small-scale fishers are mainly concerned about the irreparable damage that powerships and other oil and gas projects could cause to marine life and ecosystems, thereby affecting their livelihoods.

The Green Connection’s Liz McDaid said that as Africa’s largest carbon emitter, South Africa not only lacked the vision needed to address the climate crisis, but the government seemed to oppose the president’s goals for a just transition from fossil fuels to clean energy. 

“While we welcome the increased commitment to renewable energy, there are still too many projects that do not appear to be in the public interest, such as Karpowerships. 

“Over the past year or so, several coastal communities around the country have expressed their dissatisfaction with oil and gas exploration. And the December 2021 court judgment against Shell found that it was wholly insufficient to merely consult traditional leaders. 

“We must have proper, meaningful public participation with all who may be affected,” she said.

McDaid said The Green Connection has been opposing powerships since early 2021.

“First were the flawed environmental authorisation processes, then came the electricity generation licence application process, which Nersa still approved despite Karpowership being refused an environmental authorisation.

“It was because of these flawed processes that The Green Connection filed its papers (on 25 April 2022) to review the Nersa generation licence. The organisation now waits for Nersa to provide all the records that justifies its decision to grant the licences. 

“The deadline for Nersa to provide these records was 20 May 2022, but Nersa requested an extension,” she said.

McDaid said both the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy and Nersa are supposed to make decisions in the public’s best interest and seek to address the climate crisis with a view to a just transition to renewable energy. 

“The minister harps on sector plans like the gas plan and plans for nuclear, but fails to provide any clarity about holistic and socially inclusive energy planning. 

“When can the country expect to see the updated integrated resource plan instead of this piecemeal approach that, to date, appears set to undermine our climate commitments?

“What we need is a bolder vision for our future energy plans. We need a roadmap – specifically the integrated energy plan as outlined in section 6 of the National Energy Act – to lead us out of the energy crisis we are in. 

“But so far, we do not see the minister showing the necessary leadership to drive such a process, which would require meaningful input from all South Africans,” McDaid said.

She added that South Africans are united in their frustration with load shedding. 

“What we should see is more effort to address this, from the grassroots. For example, the government could give small businesses and homes a tax break for putting up solar systems – it should also expedite the process to allow such generators to feed into the grid,” she said. 

The Green Connection said in a statement on Monday that it remains concerned about Energy Minister Gwede Mantashe’s ongoing “divisive comments” about those who are anti fossil fuel. 

“With the country facing a climate emergency, it seems bizarre for a government minister to deride and oppose people’s efforts to combat climate change. 

“In addition, the minister continues to push for the very fuels which will make things worse, and which will likely lead to more suffering for people on the ground,” read the statement.

The Green Connection’s community outreach coordinator, Neville van Rooy, said: “Is this now officially an onslaught from the government and industry, to bully communities and violate their rights to a healthy and clean environment? 

“Even after two court interdicts that stopped seismic surveys – part of the initial phase to search for oil and gas – demonstrated the people’s opposition, the government is still forcefully pushing for these fossil fuels. 

“In our view, communities want to phase out oil and gas, and move to the just transition, but, instead, more oil and gas projects are popping up without proper, meaningful community participation.”

He said the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy’s agenda seems to ignore climate crises. 

“The recent floods in KZN should be a clear warning that this is no longer a distant phenomenon. Climate change is at our doorstep, and we cannot afford to be stranded with fossil fuel decisions any longer. 

“We have a right to choose the energy future we want for our country, and the future we want is renewable,” said Van Rooy.

“It would be un-African of us to just sit by and let the government’s sluggish climate response potentially ruin the country’s chance for a just transition. 

“Not only will we have to survive more floods and droughts, but our people are missing out on the many accessible socioeconomic opportunities that will come as part of the transition, if it is done in partnership with the people.”

On Friday, 20 May, Eskom gave notice that it would not oppose The Green Connection’s application and would abide by the court’s decision. 

McDaid said that, to the best of their knowledge, Eskom had not signed the power purchase agreement with Karpowership. To them, this indicates that Eskom might also have concerns about the impact of potentially higher electricity prices if the powership deal goes ahead. 

Courtesy of Daily Maverick

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DWS launches HydroNET for the country’s Catchment Management Agencies

The Department of Water and Sanitation has launched a HydroNET Water Control Room in Nelspruit, Mpumalanga. The HydroNET is a system which will be used by the country’s Water Management Areas to have access to weather and water information. This will ensure the parties will make good decisions based on the weather and climate to sustainably manage South Africa’s precious water resources.

HydroNET is a proven web-based decision support system that provides intelligent solutions for operational and strategic water management. It combines weather information from the South African Weather Service (SAWS) with water information from the DWS, and will also generate overviews, forecasts and warnings with the local knowledge generated. Therefore, with this system, water professionals can make well-informed, transparent, and accountable decisions for managing water resources and for sharing relevant information with stakeholders and partners. This is critically important for a water scarce country like South Africa, and every raindrop is critical for water management.

The Department of Water and Sanitation, in collaboration with the SAWS, HydroLogic, eLEAF, the Dutch water authorities and the Inkomati-Usuthu Catchment Management Agency (IUCMA) launched a pilot to demonstrate the benefits of the HydroNET Water Control Room for South Africa.

Dr Sean Phillips, the Director-General of the Department of Water and Sanitation acknowledged the partnership that the Department has with the Netherlands for over a decade. He says the partnership has brought about excellent collaboration on water resource management, through the new tool of HydroNET Water Control Room.

“Data and information decision-making tools are critical to advise water managers and communities timeously of impending disasters. This HydroNET system is capacitating CMAs with real time access during the two years of the contract to various dashboards, reports and tools empowering them to make the right decisions at the right time in a country where every raindrop is critical for the sustainability of water management in South Africa”, said Dr Phillips.

Mr Ishaam Abader, the Chief Executive Officer of the South African Weather Services said his organisation is proud to be a partner in support of the Department of Water and Sanitation, particularly with issues of strategic water management.

“The HydroNET dashboard will be personalised with tables and modern results that will assist in making reliable and safe decisions at the right time. I would like to commend the Catchment Management Agencies that have updated their case studies, this demonstrates the resilience of our water resources.”

Michelle Hartslief from HydroNET SA also acknowledged the partnership with the Department of Water and Sanitation. She outlined an implementation and training plan that will be offered to water managers in various CMAs, particularly in Weather Training, Water Auditing, and Water Control Room Training.

“The HydroNET Project will be implemented by the South African Weather Services and the Department of Water and Sanitation will play an oversight role. We are looking forward to collaborate with both institutions to ensure good water management in South Africa, ” said Ms Hartslief.

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